How Solar Works How solar system works
 

A thorough explanation of how solar works involves some very complicated physics. Light, which consists of photons, strikes the silicon atoms on a solar cell.  When this happens, energy is added to the atom which causes the electrons orbiting the nucleus of that atom to move into higher energy shells (orbits).  Solar cells are made of two types of silicon layered one on top of the other.  One layer has a higher electron density than the other.  Because of this layering, electrons from the top layer can be captured by the bottom layer when they are excited into higher energy shells.  Another feature of the layering is that the captured electrons cannot move back to the layer they originally came from.  This surplus of electrons on one layer and deficit on the other creates a voltage (force) of electrons being attracted back to the top layer.  If wires are attached to each layer (one positive and one negative), connected to devices that run on electricity, completing a circuit, the electrons will flow down those wires, power electrical devices along the way and return to the top silicon layer.  This process repeats continually as long as photons strike the silicon atoms.

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